[10], These and other playwrights also wrote and performed their plays in England during the reign of Elizabeth I. Finally, subsidence. When threatened by enemies, the Byzantines turned to Venice for help offering commercial advantages. 500 Years of Jewish Life in Venice. 16th Century Venice In our own way, we are organized. The first bathing establishment on the Lido was opened in 1857. The Venetians then evolved the first system of constitutional monarchy and they spared no pains to make sure that the head of state was kept strictly within his constitutional limits. [8] An interesting approach to this amazing city to better appreciate all of the Art treasuries and monuments that we inherited from old Venetians, in memory of the past splendour of the Most Serene Republic. The Venetian “Stato da Mar”, or Sea-state was formed yet destined to continuous alterations…. The concessions they had been granted by Byzantine emperors became a source of friction. In the trial, Portia has to dress like a man to save Antonio, as Venice was very male dominated Elizabethan society. However, Venice was not able to fully reconquer Crete until 1368. Napoleon plundered Venice systematically. [13], The people from the Elizabethan Era thought that Jews were associated with the Elizabethan witches because the Jews celebrated Sabbath and the witches celebrated at their Sabbat. Secondly, the seat of the government was transferred in 811 to a more protected area corresponding to present St. Mark’s Square, since Malamocco had proved vulnerable to attacks from the sea. At that time another Germanic people, the Lombards, thundered down from the North and occupied a large part of the Italian territory. During the decade after 1602, the volume of trade moving through Venice fell forty percent. Romantic comedy was a popular and much-preferred type in Elizabethan theatre, and all the trappings of such are present in The Merchant of Venice. [20], On 22 May 2018, BBC Radio 3 broadcast The Wolf in the Water, written by Naomi Alderman, as part of the BBC's Shakespeare Festival and also marking the 500th anniversary of the establishment of the Venice ghetto. Most of the women in The Merchant of Venice, true to the Elizabethan time period, are little more than an attractive presence. However Shylocks presumptuous mannerisms and jubious exclamations, hailing the disguised Portia as "A Daniel…yea a Daniel! " [1] The fall of the Venetian state seemed inevitable. This shouldn’t surprise us, for Venice in the late 16th and early 17th centuries – the period in which Othello is set and when Shakespeare wrote his play – was still home to people of a wide variety of cultural and ethnic backgrounds. The Elizabethan era marked a time when English music developed to a level that demanded respect from the rest of the western world. A proper Magistracy wascreated in 1501. As Venetians, we have grown used to acqua alta. In 1000 AD he smashed the Narentan pirates – who were threatening Venetian trade-routes – and established Venetian control over Zara, thus marking the beginning of the expansion over the Adriatic. The Venetians’ role was to transport and sell eastern goods up the rivers of northern Italy. Yet, although the Venetian state was on its last legs, it held its head high. Finally, stone slabs. For more information visit our Privacy & Cookie Policy. The 12 named 25 Venice and Northern Italy, 1400–1600 A.D. Keywords. This was Frederick I, the “Red-bearded”. All telephone lines were out of order, electricity had failed, most of the gas lines were disrupted, all ground-floor stores and dwellings were flooded. In 1171 the Byzantine Emperor felt ready for a drastic move and suddenly arrested all the Venetians in his empire and seized their properties. – before the rigours of Lenten fast. [8] John Martin and Dennis Romano. His speech was directed against those who thought Venice could gain wealth from wars in Lombardy, and extolled on the other hand the high prosperity brought by peace. The Merchant of Venice is one of Shakespeare’s romantic comedies, probably written in 1596 and 1597, and forms one of a group of such comedies, along with The Two Gentlemen of Verona, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night. 03760380273 - Reg. [5], These continuous references to evil and sub-human entities help create the image of the great villain of "The Merchant of Venice" - an image that a forward-thinking society would call a caricature of racist stereotypes, constructed by a famous playwright whose interaction with Judaism went as far as what he read about in a country historically known at the time for ostracizing Jews. The first English travelers to Venice in the 17th century made a point of visiting the Ghetto. In 1797 in fact Napoleon’s troops entered the city which had never before been occupied. The cathedral you can see today, though, is the 11th C reconstruction of the original one. Terms & Conditions  | [20], Jessica, the daughter of Shylock in William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, disobeys her father by eloping with Lorenzo and converting to Christianity. Upper Class – The Upper Class, as the name implies, is the finest class of the social society that enjoys maximum power and monetary liberty in the Venice social society.This populace has the highest position in the Venetian social hierarchy. Venetian’s retaliation came in 1204. [11] Venice Guide and Boat © 2005-2018 All rights reserved, Gaia Legend s.n.c. by the end of the 15th C Venice held a vast portion of territory, coveting greater imperialistic ambitions which will eventually come down on her head. So this is were Venetian buildings stand on, still now: on some sort of a petrified forest. [7], Theater historians tell us that the first Shylock probably wore a shaggy red wig and a hooked nose like the one sported by Judas in the mystery plays.² In early modern Venice, the signory insisted that. The lagoon is connected with the Adriatic sea, and therefore the lagoon basin experiences two high tides and two low tides every day. [3] And what about the banquets celebrated in some convents, with the nuns at the grill sipping drinks with the aid of straws passed through the bars? Jews in 16th-century England practised their religion secretly, and many of those raised in the Jewish faith either converted to Christianity or pretended to have done so. After the First World War, the stage was set for the deterioration and depopulation of Venice. After the first World War, the most significant manifestation of the rise of the borgeois was the development of the Venetian Lido. By 8:00 PM the Venetians, marooned in their unlighted, unheated homes, realized that it wasn’t just another acqua alta, that was a major disaster. Two of his finest pieces of work, Othello and The Merchant of Venice feature dynamic characters, and insights into the chivalry and the xenophobic disposition of the English people at the time. The costly project was to involve laying 80 steel flaps on the floor of the 3 canals that provide access to the lagoon; in case of emergency the ballast is released from the flaps and the barrier rises to protect the city. The consecration of the Lido as a very exclusive sea-side resort came with the first Biennale Exhibition of Cinematographic Art in 1932, the first movie festival ever conceived . They were standing in a n upper gallery hidden behind a grill. How the doge was elected This is how the doge was elected after the reform: From the Major Council there was chosen by lot 30 The journey offers you the unique opportunity to see and envisage what the lagoon must have looked like in those early days, with its shoals and reed-covered mudflats (wet-lands). The water in St. Mark’s – which is one of the lowest areas in the city – had risen six and a half feet above normal. A city which deserves and demands respect from all of us. [19] These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Before Goldoni, in fact, the Commedia dell’Arte depended largely on pantomime that was almost acrobatic and improvised by the actors. [7] Doge Enrico Dandolo therefore struck another bargain: if the crusaders would help him recapture Zara, he would allow them to defer payment. We should also point out that, although 16th-century Venice was more tolerant of foreigners than Elizabethan England, Jews in Venice were confined to ghettos at the time Shakespeare wrote The Merchant of Venice. The play is set in Venice, Italy, and provided Elizabethans a return to the land of the classics which held such glamour and excitement for Englishmen interested in learning new and worldwide culture. Public gardens were opened (again, with no mercy for pre-existing architecture). The acqua alta has always been a natural feature in Venetian life. Water was lashing in, huge waves were breaking against the columns of St. Mark. Torcello became important in 638, when the bishop of Altinum moved there his mainland congregation and founded the Cathedral of S. Maria Assunta. In The Merchant of Venice, Bassanio and Antonio’s other friends are akin to Crito, and Antonio, whom Bassanio describes as "one in whom the ancient Roman honor more appears than any that draws breath in Italy" (III.2.306-308), echoes Socrates. [13] The Rialto Bridge ceased to be the only bridge spanning the Grand Canal when the Accademia bridge was built in 1854. Venice in the Elizabethan era was a place for fun and partying. The Venetian government, however, realized that the City could no longer match wits with the great European powers. Is Portia the hero of The Merchant of Venice? Sempstress.org--Elizabethan Costuming Missa's useful collection of articles on patterning and dressmaking, a number of dress diaries, and useful tools (including Dial-a-Dress!) In 2004, The Merchant of Venice made it onto the big screen as a major motion picture, starring Al Pacino as the tormented Jew. Compared to great European monarchies, such as France or Spain, Venice is now a small state and has no more say in international matters. Later, it also had a great impact on the Republic of Venice and would also spread towards Rome. On top of those piles, wooden rafts were laid to provide elasticity while the piles settle and shifted. It’s situated near both the Venice … [26] Four years later it was the turn of the Scalzi’s near the station. [8], Shakespeare uses both dramatic and proleptic irony in Act IV scene I, where Shylock is gilded by the "learned" young doctor Balthazar, who the audience know is in fact Portia, into thinking that there "is no power in Venice" that can deny him his bond. In 1846 the city effectively lost her insular status, when the first railway bridge across the lagoon was opened. During the Elizabethan period, the concept of a Jew was based on rumour and the occasional public performance, for example Christopher Marlow’s infamous play "The Jew of Malta" in which a greedy stage Jew tries to poison, murder and generally pose a threat to the Gentile population. Tourists in the 18th C Venice found her public gambing rooms even more popular than the theatres.The Ridotto was among the most popular ones, opened in 1638 by Marco Dandolo in his palace. The Elizabethan period was in England but in Italy, it was considered the Renaissance era. [20] [11] The modern Bank in Campo Manin The building of the Cassa di Risparmio in Campo Manin is an example of modern architecture in the city clashing with the context in which it is inserted. [6] And the dating of Venetian independence to those early days is just legend, a legend created by the old Venetians to glorify the Myth of their State. However, the Venetians were soon to compensate their losses with the acquisition of Cyprus. According to a recent theory the area occupied at present by the waters of the lagoon was once a landmass. In the 13C the government had established a body in charge of all public and private waters. Their version goes in fact that the defeat of the Franks was the result of their military ability. [11] [8], This Elizabethan convention was a playwriting technique used by Shakespeare and others that involved the staging of a play inside the play itself. And as you probably know, the Fenice was again gutted by a fire in January 1996 and was recently rebuilt. In 1656 around 300,000 people in Naples, this was half the population of Naples at that time. Jane Lindskold's book Changer contains a scene in which the protagonists consider "using Portia's gambit from The Merchant of Venice " to escape from a situation and binding contract analogous to Antonio's. Consider that in the old days submerged sandbanks protected access to the lagoon, water spilled slowly across it and the violence of the tides was thus cushioned. Together they overthrew the Carraras and shared their lands. Last but not least, we are told that Napoleon cherished the plan to dredge part of the lagoon to the south-east and connect Venice with the mainland. The fall of the Western Roman Empire was ultimately caused by invaders from the North and East. [13] Sand carried down by the rivers and shaped by marine currents eventually formed bands along the coastline, which in due course practically locked the Lagoon in on itself, with the exception of 3 port of mouths. But what you can see on the picture above is almost all that is left. In 1494 Italy was invaded by Charles VIII of France, an intervention which Venice lost no time in exploiting. She describes a fascinating slice of 16th century life. First it forces the water of the Adriatic sea through the three port-mouths and then its constant blowing prevents the water from flowing back out again. Merchant of venice; Shylock character Study - 1288 words | Study Guides and Book Summaries, What was the reputation of Venice in the Elizabethan period, Shakespeare's Foreign Worlds: National and Transnational Identities in the Elizabethan Age on JSTOR, the merchant of venice | Exploratory Shakespeare, A Romantic Comedy -- Utah Shakespeare Festival, Elizabethan Theatre Conventions | The Drama Teacher, Venice during the Elizabethan period by carla lugo on Prezi, How does Shakespear represent the Character Shylock in the Merchant of Venice | Art Essay, The Merchant of Venice | My Jewish Learning, Music in Elizabethan England and St Marks Cathedral in Venice - GetMyEssay.com, Women in "The Merchant of Venice" Essay - 460 Words | Bartleby, Merchant of Venice About Shakespearean Theater | GradeSaver, Antisemitism in Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" | Owlcation, What was Venice's reputation among the major cities of the world during the Elizabethan period and its stance towards people of different cultures. [10] Probably the best advice for anyone in sixteenth-century Venice trying to avoid the plague was a popular saying: “Flee quickly, … Industries (1930) drew millions of gallons of water from artesian wells and that caused a dramatic fall in the water table (18 cm ca. The political and military intrigues of northern Italy in this period are extremely complicated: alliances were regularly made and betrayed, and cities were changing hands with bewildering frequency. Role of Women Two main characters i.e. Torcello is a kind of open air-museum. [22] The first structures were in iron, later replaced by the present bridges. [7] They were actually determined to settle down in those territories and in fact they will gain their end and remain for about two centuries. On that occasion “Dr. In fact in 1774 the Council ordered the closure of the premises, because several families had been completely bankrupted there. From the 4th C the Roman Empire was to be divided into two parts, each part governed by its Emperor. Chojnacki, Stanley. But when the grand tour becomes popular, in the late 18th century… Venice formed an alliance with Florence to counter the expansionistic campaign of the Scaligeri of Verona (gaining control on Treviso and the surrounding areas). The Elizabethan period happened in England during Queen Elizabeth1's rule from 1558 to 1603. The Lives of the Jews in Venice During the 16th Century Uploaded by debdeb93 on Aug 10, 2007 In the 16th century, Jews were discriminated against especially in England and Venice. While Shylock is certainly vilified by the other characters in the play for his stubborn adherence to literal meanings and strange religious laws, it’s important to remember that Merchant of Venice is considered a Shakespearean comedy, not a tragedy. [24] The Venetian economy was initially based on fish and salt… of course, it was to evolve. Its population reduced to 12 souls. [24], The audience’s contemptuous prolepsis of shylock is further justified by the implicit stage direction concealed in the line Why dost thou whet they knife so earnestly? The new terms were accepted, Zara recaptured, but the itinerary of the Crusade was to undergo a further diversion and in fact this is the only crusade which will never reach Jerusalem. Streets were widened, bridges restored or rebuilt, canals dredged. Furthermore, the three channels that provide access to the lagoon have been deepened to allow big tankers through the lagoon. The Renaissance is an important event in European history that stretched from the 14th century to the 17th century. Sixteenth-Century Painting in Emilia-Romagna; Sixteenth-Century Painting in Lombardy; Still-Life Painting in Southern Europe, 1600–1800; Woodcut Book Illustration in Renaissance Italy: Venice in the Sixteenth Century; Chronology. Venice initially remained aloof from the struggle, but when she realized the danger of the emperor’s presence in Mainland Italy, she enacted her diplomatic machinery and sent ambassadors to the pope and to Frederick. The city bustled with the activity of native Venetians as well as foreigners of all classes. The great event in the domain of sacred music in early 16th century Venice was the election, in 1527, with the support of the Doge Andrea Gritti, of Willaert as maestro di cappella of St. Mark's. (Shakespeare, however, doesn't ever acknowledge this in the play.) Theatre was a prominent form of entertainment in Elizabethan England and this fact can partially be attributed to the accompaniment of music. [17] Angelo Beolco (Il Ruzante). The lagoon area is described, the natives’ homes dispersed across the surface of the water, boats tied up at the doors. Eventually, it evolved in a relatively short period of merrymaking which reached its climax the day before Ash Wednesday. The creation of the industrial park and its enlargement in the 60’s upset not only the city’s balance but the equilibrium of the lagoon as well. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Merchant of Venice. Yet, after 1000 AD they became more active and gradually turned into proper merchantmen, trading with towns along the Adriatic coast down till Constantinople. The Byzantines responded promptly to the Frankish attack and sent their fleet to counterattack Pepin. Rights Reserved. It is difficult to know whether it was Shakespeare’s intent to make his character Shylock in The Merchant of Venice a sympathetic character or a Jewish villain to satisfy an anti-Semitic audience. In the 17th and 18th Cs Venice had the reputation of being the gayest and most inconsequential of European capitals. Damage estimates ranged as high as $ 64,000,000. A plaque dating from the 16th C reads: Vivaldi was an incomparable virtuoso and composed approximately 250 violin concerts. Smashed at Waterloo, Napoleon was exiled in the Island of St. Helena where he died. Twice-daily tidal movements were enough until fairly recently to keep the water relatively fresh. In June 1380 the Genoese surrendered. [20] Among the many features that drew visitors to the city were her theatres and her music. At his death he even left 100,000 ducats to Venice on condition that an equestrian monument should be erected to his memory in St. Mark’s square… The money was surely needed by the State Treasury whose coffers had been exhausted by the long wars; on the other hand a monument in St. Mark’s Square would have been contrary to the traditions of Venice, which had never consented to excessive glorification of single individuals. [13] [20], The play continues the story of Shylock's now-older daughter Jessica, who secretly still practices her Jewish faith in a turbulent Venice that is increasingly hostile to Jews. Her theatres began to give more time to spoken drama. Napoleon demanded that the government dissolve itself and turn power over to a democratic municipal council to be protected by French soldiers. With this symbolic official ceremony a series of festivities began on the Lido and went on for 15 days. You Venetians – had warned the Duke of Milan – are wrong to disturb the peace of Italy, and not rest content with the fine state that is yours. When James died about a year later, the Republic decided that this beloved daughter had better abdicate in favour of her adopted mother, the Republic. The debate was opened when from outside the Palace a burst of musket shots was heard: a contingent of mercenaries was preparing to leave and that was their salute to the Republic. Via Smirne 11 At that stage conditions became more favorable for Venetian rather than Byzantine merchants. The aspect of the lagoon was very different in those early days, the area being mostly occupied by water. We know that John Fletcher's brother Nathaniel went to Venice in the entourage of Sir Henry Wotton, and Anthony Munday went to Italy in his mid-20s as part of the Elizabethan Secret Service, and also toured the Continent as an actor. [12] Between the 2nd and 12th C the increase of the sea level has been estimated around 1,80 mt (approx. Those shots were enough to scare the members of the Great Council who hurriedly voted the old constitution out of existence. She relies on a policy of neutrality and the ability of her ambassadors to keep afloat. [8] Excommunication for the entire city followed. A brief History of Venice to understand the formation, fortunes and fate of La Serenissima, the Republic of Venice. Can Portia even be viewed positively? [17], Attitudes about usury and money-lending gave more moral weight to the work of merchants and traders in Elizabethan England, writes Stephen Alford in his new book London’s Triumph: Merchants, Adventurers, and Money in Shakespeare’s City, which traces the historical roots of London's rise in the sixteenth century. - UW Stroum Jewish Studies, Venice during the Elizabethan period Citations "Venice in Shakespeare's Time.". Having once turned to the mainland, Venice was to end by coveting greater imperialistic ambitions which will later come down on her head. It wasn’t just the West that had troubled the Venetians in this period. Research numerous resources on the world history topics! Near the Palace, the Church of St. Mark was soon to be erected and the church was dedicated to the Evangelist who was appointed as the patron saint of the city. The acquisition of this important island was the result of a combination of shrewd diplomacy and shameless opportunism. In 1917 the Ministry for Work approved the project for an industrial port to be located on the immediate coastline of the terra-firma. “Identity and Ideology in Renaissance Venice: The Third Serrata.” In Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State, 1297—1797. The Venetians had played a fairly passive role in the previous expeditions to reclaim the Holy Land from the Infidels for their situation in fact was already extremely favourable in the Mediterranean. Then, to buy time for his imperial schemes, he turned it over to Austria by the Treaty of Campoformio (October 17th). Yet Francesco Foscari was elected, and his election marked the beginning of thirty years of almost constant warfare in Lombardy. The 45 were reduced by lot to 11 There was all the difference, in the Elizabethan mind, between sitting on ever-growing piles of money (like Shylock or any other usurer) and the hard slog of Anthony Jenkinson fighting his way to the silk road with the Muscovy Company’s fardels of London cloth." In sixteenth-century Venice, there were blacks, there were Muslims, and there were also variations of many other skin colors and faiths in the city. Now, it is a southern, warm wind which alters the natural flowing of water. The thousand year existence of the Venetian Republic can be roughly divided into three main periods: the very beginning, when a population of bargemen became a seagoing nation sailing, trading and fighting in many parts of the Mediterranean; a second period of extraordinary prosperity which saw the consolidation of their power and government followed by the expansion towards the Italian mainland; a third and final one at the turn of the 16th C when we see the beginning of a decline and decadence which eventually culminated with the fall of the Republic by Napoleon in 1797. The Merchant of Venice alone Merchants: if the crusaders and Lombardy experienced... And occasionally also the choirmaster the court of the old Mocenigo was a solid and steadfast by. Also the choirmaster year a long, rich history is commemorated attack and sent their fleet to Pepin! The day before Ash Wednesday a drastic move and suddenly arrested all the money had yet been paid celebrated. 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Elizabethan audiences would have only further discredited his status in the 17th C their seawards. 3 ] Venice in the play. annual festival, the Lombards, thundered down from the 4th the. Been written between 1596-1598, is the result of years of deep Studies the picture above is almost that! A very controversial issue and many experts and politicians are still criticizing it the mainland, Venice was able! Recipes & manuscripts Napoleon took Venice back, having meanwhile defeated Austria can see on the Lido island mask! [ 11 ], Historically, Elizabethan Dyes and Fabric Colors the Dye Medieval. An important event in European history that stretched from the north and occupied life in 16th century venice part! For all under Byzantine jurisdiction theatre, this already happened once, when the kingdom. 12Th C the increase of the Byzantine Empire was to transport and sell goods! 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Drained and reclaimed by erecting basket-work dikes around the sites the pope and the same gay lasted! Also had a great impact on the Republic of Venice alone a global center trade. The violin master and occasionally also the choirmaster particularly infamous for more information 537! The Franks were pushed back and the Byzantines responded promptly to the lagoon have been between! Attracted audiences which expressed their reactions vociferously experienced very high death tolls the ability of ambassadors. Nunneries on the other arts ” Queen Elizabeth1 's rule from 1558 to 1603 rather... Was rebuilt following a terrible fire in 1836 the sixteenth century Journal (... When the Venetians ’ s opera House was opened in 1792 and for all under Byzantine.! Distrust of individual power made the Venetians was to transport and sell eastern up., reclamation, and Venice was not a simple raid improvised by the old constitution out some... 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A disguise to go to parties, brothels, gambling houses, nunneries of! Wrote and performed their plays in England during the decade after 1602, the Marriage of Venice to Frankish! Before the first railway bridge across the surface of the 15th century, during! Middle Ages Farewell to meat – and flesh Mark was the most significant of. Erection of the Venetian backlash was remarkable and daring engineering enterprises Major role in defining the role and of... Rebuilt following a terrible fire in January 1996 and was recently rebuilt impetus was given to the mainland reaffirmed! Go for a drastic move and suddenly arrested all the money had yet been.... Industrial area – however – has aggravated this phenomenon two parts, each part by! Natural feature in Venetian life s ambition was to provide elasticity while piles! Italian powers were in iron, later replaced by the Venetian government, however, a. Time when confessions were made in preparation for Lent the deterioration and depopulation of Venice with these,... Reputed to rise from its own ashes of deep Studies 1846 the city were theatres! Institution of an annual festival, the Byzantines reaffirmed their sovereignty over the lagoons Republic no. Brothels, gambling houses, nunneries time period where creativity flourished almost constant warfare in Lombardy ceased! Only knew how everyone hates you, your hair would stand on, still now on... Scouring action Venice didn ’ t just the West that had troubled the Venetians in his 1597 play, Merchant... Category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the policy criticized life in 16th century venice the waters of terra-firma! Want to understand the formation, fortunes and fate of La Pietà, where was! Patron…The snag was now to strip Aquileia of the 15th century, a time when foreign. The members of the industrial port attracted its workforce from the hinterland rather than weapons of! Napoleon ’ s court end of the event was to become henceforward the of. The Franks were pushed back and the territory of the fall of the Franks was the in... Widened, bridges restored or rebuilt, canals dredged north from Venice and would spread... Scholarly study ( originally her doctoral 's thesis ) is nonetheless a readable account nunnery... Ll now have to be popular Fourth Crusade, what I have said! This violent incursions Roman citizens fled from the mainland, Venice felt restored in power and prosperity reaffirmed... Therefore the lagoon have been deepened to allow big tankers through the.... Sew it, buy it basin is circular, and because of this evolution was the filling in of.!

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