For example, stereotypes about the different physical and cognitive abilities of girls and boys, leads to certain school subjects and teaching methods being gendered. Interesting observations about Education > Children out of school, primary, female. Pregnancy and motherhood often has profound impacts on girls’ education. To mitigate this, international human rights law requires states to guarantee free and compulsory primary education, progressively free education at all other levels, and targeted measures for groups at risk of dropping out (for instance, school transportation for students living in rural areas). Lack of toilets and in particular gender-segregated toilets affects both girls and boys, however given the specific needs of girls, the impact disproportionately falls on girls. One of the consequences of austerity and the failure of states to effectively formulate, implement, resource, and enforce free education legal and policy frameworks as per their human rights obligations is the growth of private education providers, mainly in low and middle income countries, but the phenomenon has increasingly been observed in high income countries (see for example, the UK, US, and Sweden). At RTE we prefer the term ‘child marriage’ because ‘early’ is a relative term, whereas ‘child’ under international law refers to anyone who has not reached the age of majority, i.e., the age at which someone is considered an adult. Our existing strategies and processes to track, measure, and learn from our programs were not applicable, so we quickly designed a new RM&E framework, with a focus on efficiency and timeliness. According to UNESCO, children of literate mothers are over 50% more likely to live past the age of five. (Article 16). When read with Articles 28 and 29 on the right to education and the aims of education, respectively, there is a clear legal obligation to ensure equality and non-discrimination in education. Eliminating discrimination in education is an important start, but women and girls will often continue to face discrimination upon leaving school. Lastly, the Inter-American Democratic Charter (2001) calls for the elimination of gender discrimination (Article 9) and states that ‘a quality education be available to all, including girls and women’. December 12, 2017 December 12, 2017 619 HILARY MEDINA. Ideally, education systems should be focal points for action to combat gender stereotypes and gender stereotyping. For further information, see the African Union Commission’s and OHCHR’s Women’s Rights in Africa (2016). The absence of this right is particularly evident when education, which should be transformational, fails to significantly advance the position of women in the social, cultural, political and economic fields thereby denying their full enjoyment of rights in these arenas. It is frequently called girl's education or women's education. EDUGirls. Forced marriage is where one or both people do not consent to the marriage or consent to stay in the marriage, and pressure or abuse is used to coerce one or both parties. According to the, A number of factors contribute to girls from poor families not being able to attend school, the biggest of which is the lack of. Development: One of the determinants of human development is education. This includes barriers, at all levels, to access quality education and within education systems, institutions, and classrooms, such as, amongst others: The international community has recognised the equal right to quality education of everyone and committed to achieving gender equality in all fields, including education, through their acceptance of international human rights law. Benefits of Girl Education. Only 13 percent of girls are still in school by ninth grade. 17). Only one girl in ten completes primary education in South Sudan, and girls comprise just a third of the secondary school population. Many countries that demonstrate higher retention rates at the primary levels are failing to transfer these gains toward transitioning of girls to the secondary level. However, the committees take the view that a balance must be struck between recognising that child marriage is a harmful, discriminatory practice and respecting that in exceptional cases some children may be mature and capable enough to make informed decisions for his/herself regarding getting married, provided the child in question is at least 16 years old and such decisions are assessed by a judge ‘based on legitimate exceptional grounds defined by law and on the evidence of maturity, without deference to culture and tradition’ (para. Forced marriage is where one or both people do not consent to the marriage or consent to stay in the marriage, and pressure or abuse is used to coerce one or both parties. According to a OHCHR report (2013, p. 18), a gender stereotype is harmful when it limits women’s and men’s capacity to develop their personal abilities, pursue their professional careers and make choices about their lives and life plans. However, in addition to being a fundamental right in and of itself, the right to education is a ‘multiplier right’ and is, therefore, instrumental in enabling them to benefit from and claim other key rights, such as those related to work, property, political participation, access to justice, freedom from violence and health, including sexual and reproductive health and rights. SRGBV also includes attacks on girls for accessing education, motivated by ‘fears surrounding the potential role of education as a catalyst for social, cultural, economic and political transformation’ (OHCHR, 2015, p. 4). The risk of child labour, gender-based violence, early and forced marriage, and early and unintended adolescent pregnancy may increase, leading to many girls never returning to school. The, For more information on preventing child marriage and early and unintended pregnancy through education, see, According to international human rights law, the school environment must not impair the right to education and it must also contribute to the aims of education and the right to a quality education by creating an inclusive and quality learning environment (see paras 10, 19, and 22 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child’s. Such fees are a direct barrier to school attendance for many girls, either because families cannot afford these costs or the costs may force families to select which of their children to send to school. At current rates, the poorest boys in sub-Saharan Africa will achieve universal primary completion in 2069, but this will take nearly 20 years longer for the poorest girls. International human rights law imposes specific obligations on states to eliminate harmful gender stereotypes and wrongful gender stereotyping. According to our research (forthcoming), which classifies states by level of legal commitment to gender equality in education based on the treaties they have ratified, nearly half of all states (87; 44%) have the highest possible legal commitment and the majority of states cluster around the two highest levels (out of six levels) (144; 73%). In addition, UNGEI has produced useful guidance aimed at country and regional-level education planners to assist in developing gender-responsive Education Sector Plans. Prominent examples include the abduction of nearly 300 schoolgirls in April 2014 by Boko Haram in northeast Nigeria and the 2012 shooting of education activist Malala Yousafzai by members of the Taliban in Pakistan (p. 3). The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966, ICESCR) guarantees the right to education of everyone on the basis of equality and non-discrimination (Articles 13 and 14) and expressly prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex (Articles 2 (2) and 3). Provisions related to achieving substantive equality, if they are not concerned with eliminating discrimination, and achieving the right to quality education for all (with some exceptions) are subject to progressive realisation. Global figures also neglect the historical exclusion of girls and women from education, reflected in the statistic that two thirds of the world’s 758 million illiterate adults are women. When youeducate a girl,everything changes. The Committee considers GBV to be a form of discrimination, under Article 1 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979, CEDAW). For example, in Sub-Saharan Africa 21% of children are out of school—23% of girls do not go to school compared to 19% of boys. How To Approach A Girl You Like Without Being Weird. Lack of free education results in an added financial burden on families, which may come in the form of school fees (or other direct fees) or indirect fees such as for school uniforms, exam fees, security, school transportation, etc. According to Girls Not Brides, every year 15 million underage girls get married. Article 2 (c) permits the establishment or maintenance of private education institutions as long as the ‘object of the institutions is not to secure the exclusion of any group’. You search out my path and my lying down and are acquainted with all my ways. This means that states cannot just ratify a treaty guaranteeing human rights without taking the necessary steps to make it a reality for its’ citizens. Video of Girls in Afghanistan--and Everywhere Else--Need Toilets. This is coupled with the latest in news and expert views about the topics and issues currently impacting the education sector. The interaction between gender and other factors, such as poverty, living in rural areas, and/or characteristics, such as physical or mental impairment, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity often exacerbates the discrimination women and girls face regarding their right to education. Girls who receive more education are less likely to marry as children and to become pregnant and young mothers. The school environment refers not just to the physical infrastructure of the school premises but also the wider learning environment. Article 5 requires states to take appropriate measures to eliminate gender stereotyping (see below), prejudices, discriminatory cultural practices, and all other practices which are based on the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes or on stereotyped roles for men and women. Human rights law, however, neglects the importance of free or accessible early childhood care and education (ECCE)/pre-primary education. Women and girls face different barriers in relation to their education in different regions of the world. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2010), which applies to EU institutions and bodies and EU member states when they are acting within the scope of EU law, guarantees the right to education (Article 14), non-discrimination (Article 21), and equality between women and men (Article 23). In doing so, the Committee introduces a novel approach to understand the full nature of the right: the ‘tripartite human rights framework’, which consists of rights of access to education, rights within education, and rights through education. Such steps include administrative, legal, policy, and economic measures. All rights reserved.Site designed and built by GreenNet, What statistics tell us about gender inequality in education, The right to education of women and girls in international law, Other important international human rights treaties guaranteeing the right to education of women and girls on the basis of non-discrimination and equality, The right to education of women and girls at the regional level, The right to education of women and girls at the national level, Gender stereotypes and gender stereotyping, Gender-based violence against women and girls, Child marriage and early and unintended pregnancy, Lack of inclusive and quality learning environment and inadequate and unsafe education infrastructure, including sanitation, harmful gender stereotypes and wrongful gender stereotyping, child marriage and early and unintended pregnancy, gender-based violence against women and girls, lack of inclusive and quality learning environments and inadequate and unsafe education infrastructure, including sanitation, Global figures also neglect the historical exclusion of girls and women from education, reflected in the statistic that, Despite gains in rates of girls’ enrolment in primary school there are disparities in completion rates. 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