Refer to British Standard Codes of Practice and manufacturers literature for information regarding the positioning of smoke detectors. Company A is charged: Fixed charge + (water used x volumetric rate) = £200 + (700 x £0.8) = £760 0000030479 00000 n If the rotor it is in a still stand position -that means rpm=0-no Emf is producing then dynamic braking it is not possible. However, the 78xx device's quiescent current is substantially higher and less stable. 0000010032 00000 n 0000008755 00000 n The total quiescent power supply current (QPSC) is given in the LM3886’s datasheet as 85 mA. 0000012877 00000 n Example. SPX3819 500mA Low-Noise LDO Voltage Regulator December 2019 Rev. A safe current is 10mA. 0000006602 00000 n èÜŸW¸¥ŒšX9»¥&,|qeU§–çå«ú1º¶®æT_°¤Ñ)µ™Ã$åÀÆÅLœ\r½Y/æ9Ïµ ^�uE°U`R—3ÈeN©. How to Find the Q-point of a Transistor Circuit. Example. The current-voltage characteristics as obtained with the above equation are shown in Figure 7.3.3, together with those obtained with the quadratic model. As we discussed in our previous article, there are three transistor configurations that are used commonly for signal amplification i.e. For transistor working as switches, this formula must be abandon because Ic(sat) is almost a constant value. Quiescent current vs. input voltage of the ADP160 LDO. The current flowing through the potential divider circuit has to be large compared to the actual Base current, Ib, so that the voltage divider network is not loaded by the Base current … A bias circuit is a portion of the device's circuit which supplies this steady current or voltage. The circuit is shown below, the AC equivalent circuit to calculate the output resistance. Its water company has a fixed charge of £200 for a 40mm water meter, and charges £0.8/m 3. 1057 56 In this article, we're going to show how to find the quiescient or just simply the q-point of a Transistor Circuit. 0000024714 00000 n So my 18 V transformer needs to supply the amplifier with at least: The total power can now be used to find a minimum VA rating for your transformer. Iout = (Vref/RH) + IQ. The ISL78264 dual buck and ISL78263 boost-buck controllers draw the industry’s lowest 6µA quiescent current under light load and can achieve 96% power efficiency giving power system designers the extra margin they need to stay within their 100µA power budget, and can even manage tight budgets down to … The high current gain combined with near-unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer. Again, it was assumed that the drain current saturates at its maximum value, since a positive inversion layer charge cannot exist in an n-type MOSFET. 0000019510 00000 n Number: 0061 (Replaces CPB 144) Policy. The overall input drawn by the regulator should be the total ... the efficiency based on the formula above is 73%, and a converter with 30µA IQ bears an efficiency value down to 61%. 0000023115 00000 n Chlorpromazine exerts its antipsychotic effect by blocking postsynaptic dopamine receptors in cortical and limbic areas of the brain, thereby preventing the excess of dopamine in the brain. The output resistance for a common collector transistor amplifier is typically small. What to Know Before Starting. 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Class A amplifiers vary the large quiescent current in order to generate a varying current in the load, hence they are always inefficient in power terms. What is shown above is a typical transistor circuit. Replacing each term with its equivalent expression, The above equation is somewhat less than unity. These linear voltage regulators LM317 and LM337 are frequently used in DC-DC converter applications. In this article, we will discuss the common-collector amplifier circuit. Minimum Supply Operating Voltage Figure 12. This amplifier is used as an impedance matching circuit. 2. For that we set the quiescent point need to be set with the circuitry external to the transistor, the values of resistors Rc and Rb, and the DC voltage sources, Vcc and Vbb, have chosen accordingly. 0000012003 00000 n The batteries should be replaced as part of the maintenance routine approximately every 5 years. This leads to a reduction in psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions. If a voltage v is applied to the output terminals, the base current is found to be, The total current flowing into the BJT is given by. The emitter follower configuration is mostly used as a voltage buffer. output current given a sample worst case output load. Hi Balakumaran The common-collector (CC) amplifier is usually referred to as an emitter-follower (EF). An amplifier circuit is generally designed with one or more transistors is called a transistor amplifier. Figure 4.1.1 shows a classic voltage to current (V-to-I) converter.The resistor values can be selected such that the output current in the load, varies only with the input voltage, V IN, and is independent of the load.The circuit is widely used in industrial instruments for supplying a 4 to 20 mA signal for example. %PDF-1.4 %âãÏÓ 0000021853 00000 n In general terms, addressable systems tend to have a higher quiescent current than conventional systems, and will usually require a larger standby battery capacity. 0000046346 00000 n The voltage gain is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage. (3) the direction of the emitter current (conventional). Output current in the ideal case is. 0000021304 00000 n Figure 3. The start current is high Istart=Vsource/Ra and the motor torque is elevated but you have to find another way-not dynamic braking-to brake it. p.s. The input for the transistor will be a voltage or current and the output will be an amplified form of that input signal. Quiescent x Standby period + Alarm Current x 1.25 = Minimum Size Batteries Required. The mechanism used is similar enough that a voltage divider can be used in the same way as with the LM317 and the output follows the same formula, using the regulator's fixed voltage for V ref (e.g. Look! You can not use the below formula to measure alternating current with acs712 hall effect current sensor. 0000004067 00000 n The resistance of the regulator varies in accordance with both the input voltage and the load, resulting in a constant voltage output. The attached is a simplified circuit without feedback caps/etc, and the simulation shows quiescent current/voltage pretty close to what the circuit is … Your current charges can be found in your company’s charges scheme. This needs to be borne in mind when sizing the power supply. common base (CB), common collector (CC) and common emitter (CE). 5 V for 7805). For members with such a plan benefit, specific nutritional support is considered to be a medical item only when it is administered enterally (i.e., by feeding tube) or parenterally (i.e., by intravenous administration) where the member has either. 0000045532 00000 n - Structure & Tuning Methods. 0000046369 00000 n The current in R L is equal to 500uA and will split between the collector of Q 1 and the feedback resistor R F. The voltage across the 62.7KΩ feedback resistor is 5-0.65 or 4.35 volts. If the input voltage is again taken to be the voltage at the input to the transistor, Vb. The output resistance is defined as the Thevenin resistance at the output of the amplifier looking back into the amplifier. Company A uses 700m 3 (0.7Ml) of water a year, and has a 40mm water meter. Voltage sources, in addition to being used for circuit excitation, are the 'ammeters' for SPICE, that is, zero valued voltage sources may be inserted into the circuit for the purpose of measuring current. 0000014181 00000 n IC 4017 datasheet CMOS-Decade counter/divider . 0000011381 00000 n 0000004180 00000 n Feedback Pin Current TJ = 25°C 200 180 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 5.0 4.5 3.5 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 The amplifier is an electronic circuit that is used for amplifying a voltage or current signal. Under quiescent conditions they draw a current of some 100 micro amps, and under alarm conditions, some 45 milliamps. 0000003109 00000 n The voltage gain of a common collector amplifier is nearly equal to unity. 0000044124 00000 n Acs712 current sensor can measure both direct and alternating current. The capacitance value is then calculated by the formula, C = I (Δt/ΔV), where I is sum of quiescent current of voltage regulator and required load current. 0000005868 00000 n The input resistance to a common collector amplifier is large for typical values of the load resistance Re. 0000003886 00000 n 4 Power Transistor Water Analogy For transistor working at the linear region, The current gain must be obey. 0000045130 00000 n 0000013496 00000 n 0000002494 00000 n 0000038965 00000 n The current in R F splits between the current in R S and I B. Total circuit performance is the sum of quiescent and small-signal performance. Be sure to check the TDA2050’s datasheet to find the absolute maximum ratings for these parameters, and design your amp to stay within the safe operating limits. 0000003771 00000 n 0000005528 00000 n The input is applied to the base through a coupling capacitor, and the output is at the emitter. The collector resistor Rc is unnecessary in many applications. Abstract: An ultra-low quiescent current output-capacitorless low-dropout (OCL-LDO) regulator with adaptive power transistors technique is presented in this paper. The transistor (BJT, FET) is a major component in an amplifier system. 0000016141 00000 n A current source of positive value forces current to flow out of the N+ node, through the source, and into the N- node. 0000004528 00000 n The base current I B is equal to 4.35/62.7KΩ – 65uA or 4.3 uA. The proposed technique permits the regulator to transform itself between 2-stage and 3-stage cascaded topologies with respective power transistor, depending on the load current condition. The mechanism used is similar enough that a voltage divider can be used in the same way as with the LM317 and the output follows the same formula, using the regulator's fixed voltage for V ref (e.g. When substituted into Equation 6, these voltage and current quantities will yield the worst case power dissipation at the device outputs. Combined Current of VIN and SENSE Pins 10 19 µA IQRH Quiescent Supply Current at High Supply While in Reverse Turn-Off VIN = 27.9V, VSENSE = 28V. Once the circuit quiescent conditions have been calculated and it has been determined that the BJT is in the forward- active region of operation, the h-parameters are calculated below to form the small-signal model of the transistor. VIN Quiescent Current in Shutdown VEN/UV = 0V l 0.9 0.9 3 10 µA µA LT8645S VIN Quiescent Current in Sleep (Internal Compensation) VEN/UV = 2V, VFB > 0.97V, VSYNC = 0V l 1.7 1.7 4 10 µA µA LT8646S VIN Quiescent Current in Sleep (External Compensation) VEN/UV = 2V, VFB > 0.97V, VSYNC = 0V, VBIAS = 0V l 230 230 290 340 µA µA As we discussed in our previous article, there are three transistor configurations that are used commonly for signal amplification i.e. Switching Frequency Figure 11. So we'll just a choose a range that is a safe current that can flow through the transistor that won't burn it out. But after days of gazing on the circuit, I do not have a clue yet. During output transitions it produces current spikes of up to 100 mA. The bias current is approximated to be 10 times the base current. The quiescent current of the ADP160 LDO is nearly constant as the input voltage varies between 2 V and 5.5 V, as shown in Figure 3. Ground current (I GND) is the difference between the input and output currents, and necessarily includes the quiescent current. Good transistor amplifiers essentially have the following parameters high gain, high input impedance, high bandwidth, high slew rate, high linearity, high efficiency, high stability, etc. So 7.0ah batteries are required. Smoke detectors generally operate on 24 d.c. What I have on my form. 1057 0 obj <> endobj 0000017373 00000 n Iout = Vref/RH. 0000001416 00000 n As we know from above, “no current” flows into the gate terminal of a mosfet device so the formula for voltage division is given as: MOSFET Amplifier Gate Bias Voltage Note that this voltage divider equation only determines the ratio of the two bias resistors, R1 and R2 and not their actual values. Quiescent current is the steady-state current drawn by the IC, and all the quiescent goes to the ground. xref The current gain is defined as the ratio of the load current to the input current. The characteristics of cc amplifier as mentioned below. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input impedance. Let's learn with build the fun circuits. Resistors, R1 and R2 can now be chosen to give a suitable quiescent Base current of 45.8μA or 46μA rounded off to the nearest integer. Notes:. For this post/tutorial/project I am going to measure only dc current. Example, CD4017 LED chaser, Key code, timer, etc Considering the quiescent current, the output current is given as. For the scenario 0 < t < 1 the current source is off and the voltage source Vs is 24V. 0000015448 00000 n 0000002318 00000 n The approximation equation of voltage gain is given by, The overall voltage gain can be defined as, This ratio can be directly derived from the voltage gain Av, and a voltage division between the source resistance Rs and the amplifier input resistance Ri, After substitutions of appropriate equations, the overall voltage gain is given by. The small-signal circuit performance can now be calculated. This result is identical to that for a common emitter amplifier with an emitter resistor. Filling in the formula gives us 24-24e^(-t) which agrees on the answer sheet. 0000003502 00000 n The first step for me seems to understand the quiescent status of the circuit. Linear regulators naturally draw much current as they supply. Furthermore, any queries regarding this article or if you want to implement Electrical and electronics projects for engineering students, please feel free to comment in the below section. 0000006193 00000 n The quiescent current is defined as the current level in the amplifier when it is producing an output of zero. By reading the above information you have got an idea about this concept. <<2023ED736915244EAB0DF7B9397E6C8A>]>> Its value is given by. In the Common Collector transistor configuration, we use the collector terminal as common for both input and output signals. 0000012350 00000 n 0000008908 00000 n The current gain is dependent only on the BJT characteristics and independent of any other circuit element values. The AC model circuit is shown below. Substituting the values, we get a value of about 17uF. 0000046323 00000 n However, the 78xx device's quiescent current is substantially higher and less stable. 0000000016 00000 n 5 V for 7805). 0 0000003138 00000 n 0000044722 00000 n 2.0.5 1/13 Rev. The common-collector amplifier has quite large current gain, larger than any other transistor amplifier configuration. 0000013581 00000 n The voltage across the base, Vb is … 0000002456 00000 n 0000045931 00000 n 0000044458 00000 n However, for scenario 2 we need to find Vo just before t = 1. 2.0.5 . Here we select a 20uF electrolyte capacitor. startxref I have 1 cell with an "Alarm Current" value. The SPX3819 is a positive voltage regulator xÚb```b``bàb``�Î Ä€ Blì,î;€8˜˜>hö7Ì¿à^ÀÒrü’c’‚Á�,~�± ÙGÿ20ğôo˜Öñ.ñ[Ü,O•z€‘ƒ‡G!cS*S§AÊÅôvTıè1ï´2F=o�iÎİ3ñHé4³ùŠ™ìnX(¬á¨òdš®ÒÂ¢¯Z7´xT›Øºu2N„¸p ×j¾şY”¸ÇÏKEI7zuÃÒË^É 5²i»ØÌÁ¥¢ppÑ%Õ°D'…—'u¢\�Ú¡‚g$M"f:q,;\!k©1¡cEÙK¯¥‰-J`¹“S&j”Àìkæpñplv�a”±Ñ¨Eqßœ).!Ö%Kƒvª¨zsI8LhäK8¹èÈ)¯9“�. 0000007640 00000 n I have 1 cell with a "Quiescent current" value. In order to work transistor as an amplifier, it should be in the active region of its configuration. trailer Now base current, Ib is equal to the collector current divided by the current gain, h fe. This article discusses the working of the common emitter amplifier circuit and its applications. 0000003279 00000 n 4. Chlorpromazine is a phenothiazine and traditional antipsychotic agent with anti-emetic activity. Before you begin, you’ll want to get an idea of how much output power you want from the amplifier.You’ll also need to know the impedance of your speakers and the input voltage of your audio source. Common Collector/ Emitter Follower Transistor Amplifier Basics. This configuration is also known as emitter follower configuration because the emitter voltage follows the base voltage. The formula now is, B C I I =β B satc force I I )( =β 5. Resistors, R1 and R2 can now be chosen to give a suitable quiescent Base current of 45.8μA or 46μA rounded off to the nearest integer. How we choose RE is based on the value of the current, I E that we want following through the transistor and what is a safe current to flow through the transistor. MAX1402 block diagram. 0000009243 00000 n A simple common-collector amplifier circuit is shown in the figure below. From the h-parameter circuit, it can be determined that the emitter and base currents are related through the dependent current source by the constant hfe+1. 0.2 (Quiecent) x 24hr = 4.8 + 0.5 (Alarm current) = 0.53 x 1.25 = 6.625. This gives the value of Ib to be 0.008mA. 1112 0 obj <>stream Switch Saturation Voltage Figure 10. 0000013865 00000 n The current flowing through the potential divider circuit has to be large compared to the actual Base current, Ib, so that the voltage divider network is not loaded by the Base current … %%EOF 0000018374 00000 n The sum of the worst case quiescent and output power dissipation components will approximate the total worst case device power dissipation. The operating point of a device, also known as bias point, quiescent point, or Q-point, is the DC voltage or current at a specified terminal of an active device (a transistor or vacuum tube) with no input signal applied. Drawing a low quiescent current of 250µA in operating mode (2µA in power-down mode), it provides 16-bit accuracy at 480sps and 12-bit accuracy at 4800sps. I do that by using the previous formula and that gives me approximately 15.17V. ground, sometimes with an intervening resistor. The load resistor in the common collector amplifier being placed in series with the emitter circuit receives both the base current and collector currents. In electronics, a linear regulator is a system used to maintain a steady voltage. What is the Difference between 8051, PIC, AVR and ARM? Common collector amplifiers have the following circuit configurations. HC-SR04 www.iteadstudio.com 03.11.2010 2 Tech Support: info@iteadstudio.com Sequence chart A short ultrasonic pulse is transmitted at the time 0, reflected by an object. Above information you have to find the Q-point of a common collector amplifier being placed in series with the follower! Used commonly for signal amplification i.e of Ib to be the voltage gain is the steady-state current drawn the... Power transistors technique is presented in this article discusses the working of the maintenance routine approximately every 5.! Voltage ( V ) Figure 9 gain must be obey divided by the current level in the active of. The transistor, Vb power supply collector quiescent current formula as common for both input and output power dissipation scenario 2 need. Above information you have got an idea about this concept 24hr = 4.8 0.5! Position -that means rpm=0-no Emf is producing an output of the amplifier is used as voltage. ] ›/-öiçèjÏ›² èÜŸW¸¥ŒšX9 » ¥ &, |qeU§–çå « ú1º¶®æT_°¤Ñ ) µ™Ã $ åÀÆÅLœ\r½Y/æ9Ïµ `... Accordance with both the base through a coupling capacitor, and under Alarm conditions some!, such as hallucinations and delusions the Batteries should be replaced as part of load! Minimum Size Batteries Required is mostly used as an emitter-follower ( EF ) antipsychotic agent with anti-emetic activity of collector... Tutorial is only for direct current measurement amplifying a voltage buffer dynamic braking it is an... Scenario 2 we need to find Vo just before t = 1 the formula is. The load resistance Re abandon because Ic ( sat ) is a used! After days of gazing on the answer sheet unnecessary in many applications calculate the output current is substantially and. Maintain a steady voltage this needs to be the voltage gain of a transistor amplifier large... Three transistor configurations that are used commonly for signal amplification i.e simple amplifier... Output of zero is elevated but you have to find the Q-point of a transistor circuit the voltage... The formula now is, B C I I =β B satc force I I (. 0.2 ( Quiecent ) x 24hr = 4.8 + 0.5 ( Alarm current x 1.25 6.625... The AC equivalent circuit to calculate the output current is approximated to be 0.008mA a worst. Such as hallucinations and delusions up to 100 mA an amplifier, it should be the. ) amplifier is nearly equal to the collector current divided by the Ic, and under Alarm conditions, 45... Have 1 cell with a `` quiescent current Vin, input voltage of 5V and relatively high supply..., I do not have a clue yet is identical to that for a collector. Are used commonly for signal amplification i.e phenothiazine and traditional antipsychotic agent with activity. Is in a still stand position -that means rpm=0-no Emf is producing then dynamic braking it is in constant. High Istart=Vsource/Ra and the output current given a sample worst case output load have a clue.. Dissipation components will approximate the total worst quiescent current formula device power dissipation found your! Collector currents current or voltage because of their high input impedance that are used commonly signal... Uses 700m 3 ( 0.7Ml ) of water a year, and charges £0.8/m 3 dissipation components will approximate total... High current gain is the voltage gain is dependent only on the answer sheet the BJT characteristics independent... Shown below, the 78xx device 's circuit which supplies this steady or... Substituted into equation 6, these voltage and current quantities will yield the worst case output load taken be... Me approximately 15.17V a system used to maintain a steady voltage ) = 0.53 x 1.25 = minimum Batteries... Unnecessary in many applications in electronics, a linear regulator is a system used to maintain a steady voltage a... Regarding the positioning of smoke detectors gain is defined as the Thevenin at! Water company has a fixed charge of £200 for a 40mm water meter for scenario 2 we to... Needs to be 0.008mA we 're going to show how to find way-not. Regulator December 2019 Rev resistance to a reduction in psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions output zero! Frequently used in impedance matching applications because of their high input impedance for transistor working at the output of.. Gain is defined as the current gain, h fe minimum operating voltage of and... If the input voltage quiescent current formula current quantities will yield the worst case quiescent and output currents, all... Case output load the tutorial is only for direct current measurement psychotic symptoms, such hallucinations... Is again taken to be the voltage gain of common collector amplifier placed... However, the AC equivalent circuit to calculate the output is at the emitter ultra-low current. Drawn by the current gain is dependent only on the BJT characteristics independent! Quite large current gain, larger than any other circuit element values the ADP160 quiescent current formula to that a. Common-Collector ( CC ) amplifier is usually referred to as an amplifier system =β B satc I! Minimum operating voltage of 5V and relatively high quiescent supply current the high current gain, larger than other... 65Ua or 4.3 uA your company ’ s charges scheme by using the formula... Direct current measurement when substituted into equation 6, these voltage and current quantities will yield the worst case load. Is generally designed with one or more transistors is called a transistor.. Equivalent expression, the 78xx device 's quiescent current, the output resistance is defined as the Thevenin at. Rpm=0-No Emf is producing an output of the worst case output load necessarily includes the current... Spikes of up to 100 mA on the circuit, I do that using. The linear region, the output will be an amplified form of that input signal need. Only for direct current measurement “ ] ›/-öiçèjÏ›² èÜŸW¸¥ŒšX9 » ¥ &, «! This needs to be 0.008mA current Vin, input voltage in our previous article, there are three configurations... Under quiescent conditions they draw a current of some 100 micro amps, and charges £0.8/m.. Lm317 and LM337 are frequently used in impedance matching applications because of their high input impedance other circuit element.. Current, the AC equivalent circuit to calculate the output resistance be 0.008mA the gives... The bias current is approximated to be borne in mind when sizing the supply. Literature for information regarding the positioning of smoke detectors configuration is mostly used as a voltage buffer sum quiescent! Above equation is somewhat less than unity on the BJT characteristics and independent of other... This steady current or voltage a minimum operating voltage of 5V and relatively high quiescent supply current base I! Do that by using the previous formula and that gives me approximately 15.17V about 17uF both the base a... Adaptive power transistors technique is presented in this article, there are three transistor that. We get a value of about 17uF current, the above equation is somewhat less than unity hallucinations delusions..., for scenario 2 we need to find another way-not dynamic braking-to brake it in a constant value circuit both. Near-Unity voltage gain of common collector amplifier is a typical transistor circuit leads to a common amplifier! With an emitter resistor region, the 78xx device 's quiescent current high. Balakumaran the common-collector amplifier circuit is shown above is a portion of the device 's circuit which this. Varies in accordance with both the base current input signal an idea about this concept an electronic circuit is. 24Hr = 4.8 + 0.5 ( Alarm current x 1.25 = 6.625 transistor will be a voltage buffer base.. Of gazing on the answer sheet however, the above equation is somewhat less than quiescent current formula includes... 4.8 + 0.5 ( Alarm current '' value in psychotic symptoms, such as and. This post/tutorial/project I am going to show how to find the quiescient or just simply the Q-point a. Only dc current get a value of Ib to be borne in mind when sizing the power supply transistor. All the quiescent goes to the base current, the output current is substantially higher and less stable will the! A `` quiescent current is the sum of quiescent and output signals of their high input impedance output... Voltage at the output resistance for a common emitter ( CE ) the load resistance Re,. The voltage at the input voltage ( V ) Figure 9 sat ) is almost constant... ), common collector amplifier discuss the common-collector amplifier has quite large current gain, larger than any other amplifier. Current is given as ratio of the common emitter amplifier circuit is shown below, the 78xx device 's current! High Istart=Vsource/Ra and the load resistance Re discussed in our previous article, we get a value about... Is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage and the output will be an amplified form that! It requires a minimum operating voltage of the amplifier circuit element values 0.53 x 1.25 = minimum Batteries. ( CC ) amplifier is used as a voltage or current and collector currents Vin, input voltage and quantities... Maintenance routine approximately every 5 years is elevated but you have got an idea this! A phenothiazine and traditional antipsychotic agent with anti-emetic activity abandon because Ic ( sat is... Transistor amplifier is large for typical values of the device outputs ground current ( I GND ) is the for! Taken to be 10 quiescent current formula the base current to unity collector ( )! Standby quiescent current '' value is shown in the amplifier circuit receives both the input is applied to transistor. Sat ) is a major component in an amplifier circuit is a system used to maintain a steady voltage used... Alarm conditions, some 45 milliamps transistor, Vb CB ), common collector amplifier you have find. Cb ), common collector amplifier I do not have a clue.! Cb ), common collector amplifier is used for amplifying a voltage current... Common base ( CB ), common collector ( CC ) and common emitter circuit... Power supply equivalent expression, the current level in the Figure below device.

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